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Electronic Payment & Pricing > Toll Collection


Electronic toll collection (ETC) supports the collection of payment at toll plazas using automated systems to increase the operational efficiency and convenience of toll collection. Systems typically consist of vehicle-mounted transponders identified by readers located in dedicated and/or mixed-use lanes at toll plazas.


Distributing electronic toll collection tags for free is the most effective way to encourage individuals to adopt electronic toll collection and increase use of toll roads in Spain.(November 4, 2017)

Requiring HOT lane users to be subject to visual inspection systems can help quantify and limit the number of occupancy violators in managed lanes.(07/14/2015)

Continue to promote carpooling and transit services during an incremental deployment of Express Toll lanes.(03/21/2014)

Engage political champions to keep controversial High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane projects on track.(15 December 2011)

Grow regional road pricing policies from individual projects and develop modeling tools that reflect a wide range of impacts.(09/13/2010)

Package road value-pricing strategies with technology upgrades and conduct extensive outreach that involves champions, stakeholders, and the general public.(August 2008)

Consider public opinion when implementing tolling or road pricing initiatives.(January 2008)

Address toll enforcement issues during the initial phase of planning process; with particular attention paid to the legal structure and potential enforcement technologies. (September, 2006)

Ensure electronic toll collection systems are interoperable with neighboring toll facilities.(September, 2006)

Evaluate pros and cons of different methods for electronic toll collection.(September, 2006)

Avoid privacy concerns by ensuring that protecting legislation is in place prior to implementing tolling technologies.(September, 2006)

Optimize back office tolling operations.(September, 2006)

Draw on the strengths of complementary relationships between the public and private sectors for successful implementation of ITS projects.(August 2006)

Consider tolling as a tool for managing travel demand and increasing efficiency, as well as for generating revenue.(2006)

Use a flexible approach and accepted techniques for project management.(12/2/2005)

Apply process re-engineering techniques to increase the likelihood of successful ITS deployment.(12/2/2005)

Consider public/private partnerships and unique financing methods as ways to cover costs for managed lanes projects.(2005)

Consider operational issues of electronic toll collection and enforcement with value pricing projects.(November, 2004)

Implement compatible Electronic Toll Collection systems in every state.(October, 2004)

Ensure effective public and stakeholder outreach in order to garner support for HOT lanes. (March 2003)

Utilize standard highway project management procedures and tools to successfully implement HOT lane projects.(March 2003)

Set toll prices and vehicle occupancy requirements to maintain favorable travel conditions on HOT lanes. (March 2003)

Enable and enforce managed lane facilities using various ITS tools.(January 2003)

Use non-proprietary software for ITS projects to ensure compatibility with other ITS components(2001)

Gross toll revenue of the I-10 ExpressLanes was $8,918,985 and I-110 ExpressLanes was $18,704,961 in the first 16 months of HOT lane operation.(08/31/2015)

Deployment of variable rate, all-electronic, open road tolling on SR-520 Bridge near Seattle yielded $55 million of revenue in 2012.(12/02/2014)

After deployment of pricing and electronic tolling on SR 520, travel-time reliability improved by 6 to 13 minutes during peak periods on that route.(12/02/2014)

After tolling the SR 520 Bridge, mean travel speeds increased by over 10 mi/h in both directions during both peak periods.(12/02/2014)

HOT lane conversion improved travel times during peak periods and influenced 49 percent of new I-85 Xpress bus riders to start using transit.(03/21/2014)

During the planned expansion of the I-15 HOT lanes in San Diego a survey of facility users found that 71 percent considered the extension fair with few differences based on ethnicity or income.(February 2011)

Variable Pricing Systems worldwide indicate an increase in transit use and improved travel times and speeds system wide (priced lanes and general purpose lanes).(February 2011)

Operating costs of Mileage-based user fee programs can be as low as 7 percent of total system revenue and are more cost-effective than many other types of variable pricing systems.(2011)

In Germany, vehicle-miles traveled using cleaner trucks (Euro 4 and 5) rose 60 percent from 2 percent in 2005 to over 62 percent in 2009 because of the nationwide heavy-goods-vehicle tolling program.(12/01/2010)

In Puget Sound, variable tolling on SR-167 made more efficient use of carpool lanes without delaying buses; average speeds in general purpose lanes increased by 21 percent while average speeds in HOT lanes increased by 6 percent.(Winter 2009/2010)

Early HOV to HOT conversion projects implemented in San Diego saved I-15 FasTrak users up to 20 minutes compared to main line travelers.(August 2008)

In Puget Sound, planners estimated that the conversion of HOV to HOT on a nine mile section of SR-167 would allow 13 percent more vehicles to travel the SR-167 corridor daily, and increase use of HOV/HOT lanes by 38 percent.(August 2008)

In Denver, soon after the conversion of HOV to HOT lanes on I-25/US-36, 10 to 15 percent of all daily person trips occurred in the HOT lanes, at full highway speeds, while those in the general-purpose lanes experienced stop-and-go congestion.(August 2008)

In Minneapolis, converting HOV to HOT lanes with dynamic pricing increased peak period throughput by 9 to 33 percent.(August 2008)

In Florida, the addition of Open Road Tolling (ORT) to an existing Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) mainline toll plaza decreased delay by 50 percent for manual cash customers and by 55 percent for automatic coin machine customers, and increased speed by 57 percent in the express lanes.(21-25 January 2007)

In Florida, the addition of Open Road Tolling (ORT) to an existing Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) mainline toll plaza decreased crashes by an estimated 22 to 26 percent.(21-25 January 2007)

Violations fell from 20 percent to 9 percent with implementation of transponder-based electronic tolling(November 2006)

Pre-clearance systems that use interagency coordination to deploy interoperable electronic toll collection (ETC) and electronic screening (E-screening) systems improve the efficiency of motor carrier operations by saving time and money. Interoperable applications incorporated into a single transponder can save carriers between $0.63 to $2.15 per event at weigh stations. (12/2/2005)

Value pricing has been shown to increase revenue, reduce congestion by maximizing lane capacity and reduce travel time of highway transportation.(27 February 2003)

An evaluation of electronic toll collection systems at three major toll plazas outside Baltimore, Maryland indicated these systems reduced environmentally harmful emissions by 16 to 63 percent. (January 2002)

The E-ZPass electronic toll collection system on the New Jersey Turnpike reduced delay for all vehicles by 85 percent saving an estimated 1.2 million gallons of fuel each year and eliminating approximately 0.35 tons of VOC and 0.056 tons NOx per weekday.(August 2001)

Implementation of the E-ZPass electronic toll collection system on the New Jersey Turnpike reduced delay for all vehicles by 85 percent saving approximately 2.1 million hours per year.(August 2001)

In Florida, the Orlando-Orange County Expressway Authority found that driver uncertainty about congestion at E-PASS toll stations contributed to a 48 percent increase in crashes.(March 2001)

A survey of travelers indicated that 20 percent of motorists traveling on two bridges in Lee County, Florida adjusted their departure times in response to an electronic payment value pricing program that gave motorists a 50 percent discount on bridge tolls during off peak periods.(1-4 May 2000)

During the initial deployment of electronic toll collection on the Carquinez Bridge (1996-1997) there was an increased number of crashes and personal injuries.(March 1999)

In California, electronic toll collection on the Carquinez Bridge decreased annual emissions of Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons.(March 1999)

In California, the time saving benefits of electronic toll collection on the Carquinez Bridge saved travelers more than a million dollars per year.(March 1999)

In California, electronic toll collection on the Carquinez Bridge saved 25,193 hours per year by improving traffic movement through the toll facility and reducing the time required to process transactions.(March 1999)

Impacts of Electronic Toll Collection on Vehicle Emissions(11-15 January 1998)

In Japan, a field test found that conventional toll collection takes an average of 14 seconds per car, while electronic toll collection takes only 3 seconds per car.(October 1997)

On the Tappan Zee Bridge toll plaza, a manual toll lane can accommodate 400 to 450 vehicles per hour while an electronic lane peaks at 1000 vehicles per hour.(5-8 August 1995)

In Europe, ITS evaluation reports show that electronic toll collection can decrease traffic volumes by up to 17 percent.(1994-1998)

A feasibility study for electronic toll collection on the Florida Turnpike indicated that a 10 to 30 percent participation rate would yield benefit-to-cost ratios of 2:1 to 3:1, respectively.(1990)

Transit improvements, carpooling campaign, and HOV to HOT conversion demonstration project cost $70,460,779 for capital and $55,896,725 for ongoing maintenance.(03/21/2014)

Between 2003 and 2007, annual operating costs and revenues at 15 tolling agencies averaged $85.825 million and $265.753 million, respectively.(2011)

Operating costs of Mileage-based user fee programs can be as low as 7 percent of total system revenue and are more cost-effective than many other types of variable pricing systems.(2011)

I-70 Corridor ITS Study identifies system costs for several technology applications.(June 2010)

In California, the Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) purchased a four-lane 10-mile long limited access variable toll facility for $207.5 million.(August 2008)

Value pricing projects conducted in three metropolitan areas indicated the costs to convert HOV lanes to HOT lanes ranged from $9 million to $17.9 million.(August 2008)

In Florida, a limited-access tolled expressway featuring express electronic toll collection (ETC) lanes and open road tolling (ORT) cost $237 million.(21-25 January 2007)

In San Diego County, the cost to implement ETC with managed lanes on a 26 mile section of I-5 was estimated at $1.7 million.(April 2006)

In Miami, the cost to implement open road tolling (ORT) on five expressway segments was estimated at $56.5 million.(March 2006)

TMC central hardware costs can exceed $200,000 if regional communications and system integration are required.(5 August 2004)

Operating costs of electronic toll lane is 1/10th that of staffed lane.(1997)

Toll plaza structure - Capital cost/unit - $15000 - O&M cost/unit - $500 - Lifetime - 8 years(2/4/2013)

Onboard unit (OBU) - Capital cost/unit - $225(2011)

Onboard unit (OBU) - Capital cost/unit - $225(2011)

Onboard unit (OBU) - Capital cost/unit - $225(2011)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Toll Plaza Structure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice enclosure - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable conduit - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable splice - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Detector Equipment Cabinet - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Fiber optic cable pull box - Capital cost/unit - $5500(02/25/2010)

Electronic Toll Collection Structure - Capital cost/unit - $30000 - Lifetime - 20 years(September 2008)

Software for Dynamic Electronic Tolls - Capital cost/unit - $20000 - O&M cost/unit - $2000 - Lifetime - 10 years(September 2008)

Electronic Toll Reader - Capital cost/unit - $10000 - O&M cost/unit - $1000 - Lifetime - 10 years(September 2008)

Electronic Toll Collection Software - Capital cost/unit - $20000 - Lifetime - 10 years(September 2008)

High-Speed Camera - Capital cost/unit - $20000 - O&M cost/unit - $2000 - Lifetime - 10 years(September 2008)

Labor for HOT lanes management - Capital cost/unit - $20000 - O&M cost/unit - $2000 - Lifetime - 10 years(September 2008)

DS1 Communication Line - Capital cost/unit - $750 - O&M cost/unit - $6600 - Lifetime - 20 years(September 2008)

Electronic Toll Reader - Capital cost/unit - $15000 - O&M cost/unit - $500 - Lifetime - 8 years(07/28/2006)

High-Speed Camera - Electronic Toll Collection - Capital cost/unit - $20000 - O&M cost/unit - $2000 - Lifetime - 10 years(5 August 2004)