Provision of real-time transit information yields a median ridership increase of 2.3 percent on the largest quartile of bus routes in New York City.

Panel regression modeling of bus ridership over a three-year period.

March 4, 2015
New York City; New York; United States

Summary Information

Mobile applications have made it possible for public transit passengers to find routes and/or learn about the expected arrival time of their transit vehicles. Though these services are widely used, their impact on overall transit ridership remains unclear. The objective of this research is to assess the effect of real-time information provided via web-enabled and mobile devices on public transit ridership.


An empirical evaluation is conducted for New York City, which is the setting of a natural experiment in which a real-time bus tracking system was gradually launched on a borough-by-borough basis beginning in 2011. Panel regression techniques are used to evaluate bus ridership over a three-year period, while controlling for changes in transit service, fares, local socioeconomic conditions, weather, and other factors.


A refined fixed effects model reveals the largest quartile of routes, defined by revenue miles of service, realized approximately 340 additional trips per route per weekday, a median increase of 2.3 percent per route.

Benefit Comments

No comments posted to date

Comment on this Benefit

To comment on this summary, fill in the information below and click on submit. An asterisk (*) indicates a required field. Your name and email address, if provided, will not be posted, but are to contact you, if needed to clarify your comments.


The impact of real-time information on bus ridership in New York City

Author: Brakewood, Candace; Gregory S. Macfarlane; and Kari Watkins

Published By: Elsevier

Source Date: March 4, 2015

Other Reference Number: Volume 53, April 2015, pp 59-75



Average User Rating

0 ( ratings)

Rate this Benefit

(click stars to rate)

Goal Areas


Typical Deployment Locations

Metropolitan Areas


traveler information, public transit, real-time, transit traveler information

Benefit ID: 2018-01235