Cost

Cost estimates to install collision warning systems (CWS) range from $2,000 to $3,000 per tractor. Bundled packages of CWS and adaptive cruise control cost approximately $2,300; the cost is approximately $6,300 if an advanced braking system is added.


1/5/2007
United States


Summary Information

The U.S. DOT sponsored an independent evaluation of a field operational test (FOT) of three advanced intelligent vehicle safety systems (IVSS): collision warning systems (CWS), adaptive cruise control (ACC), and advanced braking systems (AdvBS).
  • CWS installed on fleet vehicles (tractors) used in-cab visual displays and audible alarms to notify drivers to take corrective action if forward radar sensors detected a potential crash.
  • ACC maintained set headways between tractors and lead vehicles, and was designed to operate as a conventional cruise control system if no lead vehicle was present.
  • AdvBS installed on fleet vehicles used air disc brakes and an electronically controlled braking system to enhance breaking performance and reduce stopping distances.
The three systems were in or nearing commercial production at the time of the FOT and were designed for use in commercial trucks. System costs (recurring and non-recurring) were derived from manufacturers and component supplier contracts, consultation with manufacturers and suppliers, and engineering analysis of similar systems.

Capital Costs

The data below excerpted from table 5.3-3 of the report show cost data from several sources.

Preliminary Installed Cost Estimates
Component
Cost Per Tractor
Data Source
CWS
$3,200 to $5,600
Major truck manufacturer (OEM).
$1,200
Battelle engineering estimate, based on industry
contacts
$2,000 to $3,000
IEEE Spectrum Web site article, "Big Rigs Need Protection, Too."
<$2,500
Intelligent Transportation Society of America web
site Information Clearinghouse Fact Sheet #3,
citing Eaton® VORAD® materials.
2,000
IVsource.net web site article, "CON-Way Makes Commitment," March 2002.
$2,500 to $3,000
Component installer.
$2,500
U.S. DOT FHWA, ITS Benefits, Costs, and Lessons Learned: 2005 Update, May 2005.
ACC
$300 to $400
Component installer
$127 to $254
U.S. DOT FHWA, ITS Benefits, Costs, and Lessons Learned: 2005 Update, May 2005.
$350 to $400
U.S. DOT FHWA, ITS Benefits, Costs, and Lessons Learned: 2005 Update, May 2005.
CWS + ACC
$4,600 to $7,100
Major truck manufacturer
(Standard discounted price and higher "list price"
are shown at left.)
AdvBS (ECBS + Disc Brakes)
$5,000 to $8,000
Battelle engineering estimate, based on industry
contacts
Disc Brakes Only
$2,100
Component supplier: $800 for steer axle plus
$1,300 for tractor drive axles (upgrade from drum brakes).

Accounting for economies of scale, production volumes, and other marketplace pressures that influence fluctuations in the prices paid by dealers and end users, the authors assumed the cost data collected during the evaluation would reflect short term highs for the new technology. To develop reasonable estimates of long term costs that would be suitable for benefit-cost analysis, the authors assumed actual cost values that were slightly lower than those observed in the informal survey.

For the installed costs, the CWS was assumed to range from $2,000 to $3,000 per tractor. The costs were estimated based on consultation with manufacturers and suppliers, and engineering analysis of similar systems.

The cost of adding ACC to a vehicle already equipped with CWS was estimated at $300 per truck. ACC can be bundled with CWS as an integrated complementary package. Bundled packages of CWS and ACC cost approximately $2,300; the cost is approximately $6,300 if an advanced braking system is added.

O&M Costs

With respect to O&M costs, the report indicated that the relatively high costs of O&M identified in previous reports (Volvo Trucks FOT: Evaluation of Advanced Safety Systems for Heavy Truck Tractors, 2005) would decline over time as maintenance technicians and repair facilities familiarized themselves the new systems and procedures. Based on the logic above, researchers estimated that the average annual O&M costs for CWS components would be $40 per tractor assuming the tractors are driven 100,000 miles annually and have a 10 year lifetime. Adding AdvBS would increase annual O&M costs by $0 to $70 per tractor.

Benefit-Cost Analysis

A high-level benefit-cost study was conducted to estimate the potential impacts of widespread deployment. The benefit-cost model evaluated four deployment scenarios:
  • CWS applied to a national fleet of 1.8 million tractor-trailer units.
  • CWS applied to 8 million commercial trucks over 10,000 pounds.
  • The bundled system (CWS + ACC + AdvBS) applied to a national fleet of 1.8 million tractor-trailer units.
  • The bundled systems applied to 8 million commercial trucks over 10,000 pounds.
Total societal benefits were derived from estimates of societal cost savings (i.e., property damage costs, bodily injury costs, fatality costs, medical and emergency response costs, lost productivity, lost quality of life, legal costs). Cost data (low versus high) were input into the model, and benefit impacts varied depending on the criteria selected to define conflicts.

The benefit-cost analysis assumed one-time start-up costs in the year 2005, recurring costs through 2024, and one replacement cycle (10 year lifetime). Benefit and cost values were discounted back to 2005 net present values using a 4 percent discount rate and a 7 percent real discount rate to account for the time value of money.

Overall, the analysis indicated that the high initial costs for IVSS would make it difficult for fleets that experience few crashes to deploy cost-effective solutions. There was no or little economic justification for the widespread deployment on all large trucks. With respect to tractor trailers, however, future deployments of CWS were economically justified if relative deployment costs were lower.

See Also:

Volvo Trucks Field Operational Test: Evaluation of Advanced Safety Systems for Heavy Truck Tractors, Prepared by Volvo Trucks North America for the U.S. DOT Federal Highway Administration, EDL 14349. 15 February 2005.


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Source

Evaluation of the Volvo Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Field Operational Test: Final Report - Version 1.3

Published By: U.S. DOT Federal Highway Administration

Source Date: 1/5/2007

EDL Number: 14352

Other Reference Number: FHWA-JPO-07-016

URL: https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/3687

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Cost ID: 2008-00176