Consider using virtual servers and ensure that all applications use a single database engine in order to reduce time and human capital required to maintain the additional IT infrastructure warranted for ITS.

Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's experience in deploying transit ITS

November 2009
Chattanooga,Tennessee,United States

Background (Show)

Lesson Learned

The Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's (CARTA) SmartBus ITS program offers valuable guidance on information technology (IT) resource management while implementing ITS at a mid-size transit agency. CARTA's IT resources were limited. The agency had a Manager of Technology who was responsible for most IT functions at CARTA, from maintaining desktop computers to overseeing ITS deployments. With limited IT resources, CARTA took steps to control the maintenance burden that would be placed on the Manager of Technology as ITS-based systems were brought online. As noted below, CARTA’s experience offers valuable guidance to help ensure that an agency’s IT manager does not become overburdened as new ITS applications are deployed.
  • Consider using virtual servers to reduce the number of physical servers. In general, the presence of more physical servers implies the requirement to perform more maintenance. There are more systems to back up and more pieces of hardware that might fail. For most of its projects, CARTA required that applications run on virtual servers hosted on a single physical server housed at the CARTA facility. This approach allowed CARTA to reduce the number of physical servers required to support its IT processes.
  • Restrict applications to the use of a single database engine. Each database requires configuration and maintenance. If multiple database engines are used, then the IT staff will need to be familiar with the configuration and maintenance tools for each type of database in use. The tools to support data integration with the Data Warehouse could also differ for different database engines. With this in mind, CARTA required that all newly acquired CARTA applications use the same database engine.
  • Limit the number of active deployments to a manageable level. CARTA's Manager of Technology was responsible for overseeing all ITS deployments as well as maintaining already deployed systems. Thus, each active deployment placed an additional workload on the Manager of Technology. To alleviate the burden, in the cases where some deployment activities were moved forward in time (e.g., deployment of the bus arrival time system), other activities were delayed to keep the workload manageable.
  • Test applications thoroughly before accepting them. Developing and documenting a thorough testing process can be a time consuming activity. However, the process of fixing a problem in a production system can be even more time consuming. Also, the time required for testing can be scheduled. When problems occurred, they typically disrupted schedules and required immediate attention. With limited resources, identifying and correcting problems during scheduled testing periods is much less disruptive than correcting problems as they occur in a system that is already in use.
  • Make appropriate use of consultants to assist with the deployment process. At the start of CARTA's ITS deployment, a Manager of Technology was hired whose primary responsibilities were the deployment and maintenance of technologies at CARTA. CARTA supplemented this person with an outside contractor who provided additional resources when needed, and contributed a complementary set of skills to that of the Manager of Technology. For example, from 2003 through 2009, CARTA used its consultant primarily to provide systems engineering, specifications development, and testing processes services. This allowed the Manager of Technology to focus on other areas where his strengths and experience were concentrated.
The more ITS technologies are deployed, the more IT personnel shall be in demand at a transportation agency. Taken together, the approaches above allowed CARTA to effectively deploy and maintain its ITS technologies with the limited IT support staff that was available. CARTA’s experience on IT resource management shall serve as guidance to similarly mid-size transit agencies’ ITS program.

Lesson Comments

No comments posted to date

Comment on this Lesson

To comment on this lesson, fill in the information below and click on submit. An asterisk (*) indicates a required field. Your name and email address, if provided, will not be posted, but are to contact you, if needed to clarify your comments.


A Case Study on Applying the Systems Engineering Approach: Best Practices and Lessons Learned from the Chattanooga SmartBus Project

Author: Haas, R.; E. Perry; J. Rephlo

Published By: U.S. DOT Federal Highway Administration

Source Date: November 2009

Other Lessons From this Source

Lesson Contacts

Lesson Analyst:

Firoz Kabir


Average User Rating

0 ( ratings)

Rate this Lesson

(click stars to rate)

Lesson ID: 2010-00553