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Crash Prevention & Safety > Collision Avoidance > Forward Collision Warning


In the application area of forward-collision warning systems, microwave radar and machine vision technology help detect and avert vehicle collisions. These systems typically use in-vehicle displays or audible alerts to warn drivers of unsafe following distances. If a driver does not properly aply brakes in a critical situation, some systems automatically assume control and apply the brakes in an ttempt to avoid a collision.


During system testing, CV Pilot sites discover the importance of having expertise in detecting and mitigating interferences with radio frequency and GPS signals(12/13/2018)

Refine institutional arrangements when deploying connected vehicle technology to outline the expectations of partners in terms of service, outcomes and reporting.(12/13/2018)

Refine proper antenna placement on connected vehicles (particularly commercial vehicles) to reduce DSRC ‘shadow’ areas where DSRC signal is degraded.(12/13/2018)

Connected vehicle deployers are encouraged to utilize multi-vendor outsourcing and to source suppliers early to create a collaborative environment that enables as much parallel work as possible.(12/13/2018)

Connected vehicle deployers should assess field equipment and organizational capabilities that will be needed to support core CV components.(12/13/2018)

RSU triangulation techniques and inertial GPS solutions can improve geolocation accuracy for connected vehicles operating in dense urban environments.

Perform early real-world testing of connected vehicle technology with actual infrastructure in place to verify end-to-end system/application performance (10/02/2017)

Integrate stop and caution warning signage into heads-up displays to help older drivers brake sooner for potential hazards.(10/14/2015)

Arbitrate driver warnings generated by in-vehicle systems to prevent confusion in cases where multiple warnings are presented in multiple threat scenarios.(June 2011)

Incorporate proven technologies and false alarm reduction strategies in the design of future Automotive Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).(April 2006)

Blind spot warning technology contributes to a 23 percent reduction in lane change injury crashes.(7/26/2019)

Driver Assistance vehicle technologies have potential to prevent 1.6 million crashes per year.(02/01/2019)

Driving simulator participants equipped with heads-up display (HUD) forward collision warning systems experienced 35 percent fewer near-crash events under fog conditions.(August 2018)

Simulation found that connected vehicles can reduce secondary crash risk by one-third in areas with high-volume traffic and 25 percent connected vehicle market penetration.(08/05/2017)

Front crash detection, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection technologies have the potential to prevent 8,000 two-vehicle crashes with motorcycles per year.(August 2017)

Drivers are significantly more likely to identify pedestrian and vehicle hazards when presented with visual warnings from forward collision warning systems.(June 26 - 29, 2017)

Widely deployed in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have potential to reduce crash rates by 47 percent.(June 2017)

More than half of the respondents to a Texas-wide survey indicated $0 willingness-to-pay for self-driving technology (Level 3 or Level 4); however, comparatively fewer (only around 38 percent) indicated $0 willingness-to-pay to add connectivity.(March 2017)

Texas study estimates that CAVs could have a $27,000 net benefit per vehicle with a 90 percent market penetration.(March 2017)

Forward collision warning (FCW) alone, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB), and FCW combined with AEB that operates at highway speeds reduced rear-end striking crash involvement rates by 27 percent, 43 percent, and 50 percent, respectively.(February 2017)

A nationwide traveler survey finds that blind-spot monitoring and emergency automatic braking are the two most appealing automated vehicle technologies.(11/01/2016)

Heads-up display showing stop and caution warning signs helped older drivers brake sooner in German driving simulator study.(10/14/2015)

Deployment of blind spot monitoring, lane departure warning, and forward collision warning systems on all light-duty vehicles in the U.S. could provide an annual safety benefit of $18 billion to $202 billion annually.(10/01/2016)

Connected vehicles with automated braking assist technology can avoid 37 to 86 percent of crashes.(06/01/2015)

V2V intersection and left turn assist applications can reduce crashes and injuries and may save between 777 to 1,083 lives per year.(08/01/2014)

Most professional truck drivers interviewed in Ohio and California expressed favorable views of on-board connected vehicle safety applications installed on Class 8 commercial vehicles.(01/31/2014)

Advanced Collision Avoidance Technologies (ACATs) range in effectiveness from 7 to 74 percent.(01/01/2014)

A modeling effort found that forward collision avoidance systems can prevent or mitigate up to 31 percent of all collisions.(06/28/2013)

Connected vehicle warning systems and autonomous emergency braking can reduce fatalities by 57 percent.(02/01/2013)

Forward collision warning systems with adaptive braking and anticipatory collision safety features can mitigate severity in 53 percent of rear-end collisions.(01/01/2013 12:00:00 AM)

After deployment of a low-speed collision avoidance system on the Volvo XC60 and S60, insurance claim frequency decreased by 15 and 16 percent, respectively, compared to similar vehicles.(December 2012)

With full market penetration adaptive cruise control and forward collision warning systems (ACC+FCW) have benefit-to-cost ratios ranging from 3.9 to 5.2 for trucks and 0.5 to 0.7 for cars.(11/30/2012)

Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems can reduce the number of moderate to severe injuries in head-on collisions by 73 percent.(09/12/2012 )

91 percent of volunteer drivers that tested V2V communications safety features indicated they would like to have these technologies on their personal vehicle.(05/21/2012)

Casualty benefits from advanced emergency braking systems in passenger vehicles have potential benefit-to-cost ratios ranging from 0.07 to 2.78.(November 2011)

Connected vehicle technologies can improve roadway capacity by 20 percent with relatively low market penetration .(09/07/2011)

In Michigan, 108 volunteers who drove 16 vehicles equipped with crash warning systems indicated the blind-spot detection component of the lane-change/merge crash warning system was the most useful and satisfying aspect of the integrated system. (June 2011)

Light vehicles that automatically activate in-vehicle alerts, seat belt tensioners, and braking systems can reduce fatalities by 3.7 percent.(June 2011)

In Michigan, 8 of 108 volunteers who drove light vehicles equipped with an integrated crash warning system indicated the system prevented them from having a crash.(June 2011)

Active and passive in-vehicle safety technologies are expected to decrease fatalities up to 16 percent.(April 2011)

In-vehicle technologies that use automated braking to prevent rear-end collisions can reduce drivers injured by 19 to 57 percent.(October 2010)

A benefit-cost analysis of Forward Collision Warning Systems for the trucking industry found benefits per dollar spent values of $1.33 to $7.22 with varying estimates of efficiency and annual VMT.(02/27/2009)

Forward collision warning systems have potential to prevent 23.8 percent of crashes involving large trucks.(2009)

A Side Object Detection System (SODS) for transit buses was cost-effective with a baseline benefit-cost ratio of 1.43 and a ratio range of 0.37-3.55.(August 2007)

Evaluation data show that forward collision warning systems (CWS) alone, and CWS bundled with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and advanced braking systems (AdvBS) can improve safety for commercial vehicles.(21-25 January 2007 )

The initial costs for collision warning systems (CWS) can be high making it difficult for fleets that experience few crashes to deploy cost-effective solutions.(1/5/2007)

Trucks equipped with collision warning systems, adaptive cruise control, and advanced braking systems have the potential to reduce truck-initiated rear-end crashes by up to 28 percent.(1/5/2007)

Approximately 80 percent of the truck drivers surveyed indicated that collision warning systems made them more vigilant, helped them maintain a safer following distance, and increased their reaction time and awareness.(1/5/2007)

An integrated system of forward collision warning and adaptive cruise control functions was projected to prevent about 10 percent of all rear-end crashes, and 10 to 20 percent of severe near-crashes.(April 2006)

Widespread deployment of integrated countermeasure systems could prevent over 48 percent of rear-end, run-off-road, and lane change crashes.(August 2005)

Survey data collected from tractor trailer drivers with one to three years of experience driving with intelligent vehicle safety systems (IVSS) indicate that IVSS lowers their perceived workload by 14 to 21 percent over a range of driving conditions.(28 October 2004)

In the central area of Chicago, a 2004 feasibility study indicated that collision warning systems on buses would not be cost-effective in the near term.(August 2004)

In Germany, a simulation study found that with 50 percent of vehicles equipped, the braking control features of a collision avoidance system would contribute to a 45 to 60 percent decrease in collisions when the leading vehicle brakes.( 8-12 November 1999)

Freightliner to Offer Collision Warning on New Truck Line(20 November 1995)

Equipping all light-duty vehicles with blind spot monitoring, lane departure warning, and forward collision warning expected to cost $13 billion.(10/01/2016)

Truck Collision Avoidance system estimated to cost between $2,500 and $4,000 per heavy truck.(11/05/2014)

Lane departure warning (LDW) systems sold in the United Kingdom ranged in price from $457 to $750 per vehicle (2009).(November 2011)

An industry analysis found the cost of Forward Collision Warning Systems for large trucks ranged from $1,415 to $1,843 per vehicle. (02/27/2009)

Collision Avoidance Systems for transit buses ranged from $900 for a Lane Departure Warning System to $2,550 for a Side Object Detection System(August 2007)

Cost estimates to install collision warning systems (CWS) range from $2,000 to $3,000 per tractor. Bundled packages of CWS and adaptive cruise control cost approximately $2,300; the cost is approximately $6,300 if an advanced braking system is added.(1/5/2007)

The costs of the in-vehicle components of precision docking technology ranged from $2,700 to $14,000 per bus depending on the number of units produced.(August 2004)

The average cost for a collision warning system among four trucking companies is $2,500 per vehicle.(15 July 2001)

Advanced emergency braking system - Capital cost/unit - $334(November 2011)

Advanced emergency braking system - Capital cost/unit - $334(November 2011)

Advanced emergency braking system with pedestrian detection - Capital cost/unit - $1540(November 2011)

Advanced emergency braking system with pedestrian detection - Capital cost/unit - $1540(November 2011)

Advanced emergency braking system with pedestrian detection - Capital cost/unit - $1540(November 2011)

Emergency brake assist for passenger vehicles - Capital cost/unit - $1000(April 2011)

Emergency brake assist for passenger vehicles - Capital cost/unit - $1000(April 2011)

Emergency brake assist for trucks - Capital cost/unit - $1000(April 2011)

Advanced emergency braking system - Capital cost/unit - $334(September 16, 2009)

Forward Collsion Warning System with Adaptive Cruise Control (Commercial Vehicle) - Capital cost/unit - $2300(02/27/2009)

Forward Collsion Warning System (Commercial Vehicle) - Capital cost/unit - $2000(02/27/2009)

Forward Collision Warning System (Transit Bus) - Capital cost/unit - $1500 - O&M cost/unit - $141(August 2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $2000 - O&M cost/unit - $40(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $2500(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $3200(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System + Adaptive Cruise Control - CV - Capital cost/unit - $2300(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System + Adaptive Cruise Control - CV - Capital cost/unit - $4600(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System + Adaptive Cruise Control - CV - Capital cost/unit - $7100(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $3000 - O&M cost/unit - $40(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $2000(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $2500(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $3000(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $1200(1/5/2007)

Collision Warning System (CWS) - CV - Capital cost/unit - $2500(1/5/2007)