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Transit Management > Operations & Fleet Management > Planning


A variety of technologies, including records from AVL/CAD systems and automatic passenger counter systems, can assist in the planning of new and modified transit services.


The Metropolitan Transportation Authority in Los Angeles, California is considering a $138 million proposal to buy 95 electric buses and accompanying charging infrastructure.(July 21, 2017)

Capital costs to implement ITS fare collection systems for bus rapid transit (BRT) ranged from $2 million to $6 million.(February 2009)

Capital costs to implement ITS applications for bus rapid transit (BRT) can vary widely ranging from $100,000 to more than $1,000,000 per mile.(February 2009)

In Michigan, the Flint Mass Transportation Authority budgeted $1 million to develop a central system for county-wide AVL.(June 2005)

Client Referral, Ridership, and Financial Tracking (CRRAFT), a New Mexico Web-based system that provides coordination between funding agencies and their subgrantees cost about $1 million to implement. CRRAFT is one of five transit agency highlighted in a rural transit ITS best practices case study.(March 2003)

Central Dispatch Workstation - Capital cost/unit - $700(July 2009)

Central Dispatch Server - Capital cost/unit - $1700(July 2009)

Automatic Passenger Counters - Capital cost/unit - $2100 - Lifetime - 10 years(6/27/2006)

Upgrade for Auto. Scheduling, Run Cutting, or Fare Payment - Capital cost/unit - $177382 - Lifetime - 10 years(6/29/2005)

Transit Center Software, Integration - Capital cost/unit - $172269 - Lifetime - 10 years(6/29/2005)

Automatic Passenger Counter (APC) - Capital cost/unit - $3800(5 August 2004)

Automatic Passenger Counter (APC) - Capital cost/unit - $3800(5 August 2004)

Automatic Passenger Counter (APC) - Capital cost/unit - $3800(5 August 2004)

Automatic Passenger Counters for Transit Vehicles - Capital cost/unit - $12000 - O&M cost/unit - $100 - Lifetime - 8 years(4/1/2004)

Automatic Passenger Counter (APC) system - Capital cost/unit - $1000(June 2003)

In Orlando, Transit Signal Priority and Bus Rapid Transit systems were estimated to reduce travel times up to 26 percent for all vehicles and reduce delays up to 64 percent for buses. (01/11/2016)

Bus rapid transit concepts deployed in New York City attracted new riders accounting for 18 percent of ridership; 61 percent of these riders were attracted to the improved features of the new service.(01/11/2016)

Bus rapid transit service improvements on the I-10 and I-110 corridors increased ridership on Metro's Silver Line by 52 percent in the morning and 41 percent in the afternoon.(08/31/2015)

Transit Priority Corridor planned for San Francisco estimates to amass $227.4 million in safety benefits from 2020-2050.(08/01/2015)

Transit ridership increased by 38 percent on SR 520 after deployment of pricing and electronic tolling.(12/02/2014)

On-time performance of transit trips across the SR 520 bridge improved by 42 percent during peak periods after deployment of electronic tolling.(12/02/2014)

Automatic vehicle location (AVL) on Reno buses leads to nearly four percent increase in on-time performance for paratransit services and more comprehensive schedule adherence data to create more accurate schedules.(May 2010)

Forty-five percent reduction in complaints by paratransit riders, 50 percent less missed trips due to mechanical problems, and a new trip planning tool for fixed-route riders introduced as part of ITS deployment in Reno.(May 2010)

Estimated reduction of 9.37 million personal vehicle miles traveled and 4,252 metric tons of CO2 from increased transit ridership in Reno, Nevada.(May 2010)

Increasing integration between AVL systems, components, and interfaces has improved the ability of transit agencies to collect data on location and schedule adherence; support operational control, service restoration, and planning activities.(2008)

Implement proper management of curbside activities for rideshare services to maintain smooth traffic flow.(05/29/2018)

Take a collaborative approach to work constructively with private transit providers on regulatory approaches. (2018)

Allow one agency to be in charge of the procurement process when implementing ITS technologies designed to coordinate services between urban and rural transit systems.(December 2010)

Provide at least the recommended minimum distance between a GPS antenna and a radio antenna on a transit vehicle.(December 2010)

Prepare agency staff for implementation of new ITS technologies and involve maintenance and information technology (IT) staff in the installation process.(May 2010)

Be prepared to use local resources to service mission critical system components, and provide ongoing O&M training to maximize system benefits.(May 2010)

Consider procuring computer and network hardware independently when feasible and procure right-sized systems.(May 2010)

Develop requirements using widely accepted standards, preferably the open source compatible ones if available, and review those requirements immediately before requesting proposals from contractors.(May 2010)

Do not expect to see significant operations staff reductions due to implementing ITS technologies, but do expect service improvements using the same staff levels.(May 2010)

Identify champions early to facilitate communications, project management, and staff ownership for successful deployment of a comprehensive transit ITS program.(May 2010)

For a comprehensive transit ITS deployment program, select an agency project manager with skills in planning, information technology, and communications.(May 2010)

Encourage staff to find creative and efficient uses of ITS to improve operations through better communications.(May 2010)

Weigh in the advantages of procuring new information technology (IT) assets, and maintain an asset management system that details new IT inventory.(May 2010)

To avoid surprises after implementation of a comprehensive transit ITS program, perform a detailed analysis of costs for operations and maintenance during the project planning phase.(May 2010)

In deploying a comprehensive transit ITS program, develop strategies and requirements for planning, procurement, implementation, and ongoing operations.(May 2010)

Expect agency's information technology (IT) operations and maintenance budget to increase in order to train qualified IT staff to maintain a new suite of hardware and software.(May 2010)

Ensure that the management responsible for transit ITS planning is knowledgeable on agency’s labor contracts and how labor contracts affect effective utilization of ITS tools.(May 2010)

To avoid project implementation delays and unanticipated costs, perform a thorough review of the existing technologies during the planning phase of a comprehensive transit ITS deployment.(May 2010)

Designate the agency project manager as the single point of contact with the contractor and evaluate track record of contractor’s project management.(May 2010)

Define clear goals for a comprehensive transit ITS deployment program and track the achievement of those goals to evaluate program's success.(May 2010)

Plan carefully and test technologies rigurously prior to deployment when seeking support for ITS deployments on public transit.(December 2009)

Develop a long-term ITS vision and use systems engineering processes to successfully manage ITS deployments.(November 2009)

Develop long-term vision and goals for agency’s ITS program and ensure timely completion of long lead-time activities to support future ITS initiatives.(November 2009)

Commit to testing the new systems thoroughly, develop an acceptance matrix to document status of testing, and perform verification and validation before introducing them to support agency’s transportation operations.(November 2009)

Consider developing a data warehouse early on to simplify the integration of subsequent ITS deployments and to efficiently manage operations of interdependent applications.(November 2009)

Tailor the standard systems engineering process model to suit an agency’s ITS deployment scale and needs.(November 2009)

Ensure proper sequencing of ITS deployments with careful consideration to dependencies among projects and utilize a data warehouse to lessen complexity in ITS integration.(November 2009)

Consider using virtual servers and ensure that all applications use a single database engine in order to reduce time and human capital required to maintain the additional IT infrastructure warranted for ITS.(November 2009)

Reach out to a broad range of stakeholders and deploy early the projects that demonstrate easy-to-see benefits to build momentum for agency’s ITS program.(November 2009)

Secure high level management support and broad participation throughout an organization during the implementation and operation of transit automatic vehicle location systems.(2008)

Plan for cellular communications to evolve and transition to new communication technologies every few years.(2008)

Examine route-specific opportunities and constraints, and assess corridor market potential for transit services prior to implementing BRT running way improvements.(2007)

Involve and collaborate with a broad range of users during software design, development, testing, and deployment to increase the return on investment.(7/29/2005)

Use transit intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in rural areas to save agency staff time and create a more user-friendly system.(2/1/2005)

Install Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) technology to greatly enhance transit agency performance.(1/1/1999)

USDOT provides advice for state DOTs considering deployment of connected vehicle technology.