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Transit Management > Transportation Demand Management > Dynamic Routing/Scheduling


Automatic vehicle location, combined with dispatching and reservation technologies facilitate the implementation of flexible public transportation routing and scheduling.


The METropolitan Special Transit, a paratransit service in Billings, Montana, spent approximately $43,500 to add automatic vehicle location (AVL) technology to its fleet of 15 vehicles. $83,575 was spent for a computer-assisted scheduling and dispatching (CASD) software system.(May 2, 2007)

TMC central hardware costs can exceed $200,000 if regional communications and system integration are required.(5 August 2004)

Client Referral, Ridership, and Financial Tracking (CRRAFT), a New Mexico Web-based system that provides coordination between funding agencies and their subgrantees cost about $1 million to implement. CRRAFT is one of five transit agency highlighted in a rural transit ITS best practices case study.(March 2003)

Computer aided dispatching systems associated with fixed-bus and demand responsive transit systems can range in cost from $10,000 to greater than $50,000 per deployment.(November 2000)

The cost to implement an advanced public transportation systems in Ann Arbor, Michigan was $32,500 per bus.(October 1999)

Automated transit scheduling and dispatch system - Capital cost/unit - $150000 - O&M cost/unit - $14400(February 2009)

Automated transit scheduling and dispatch system - Capital cost/unit - $150000 - O&M cost/unit - $14400(February 2009)

Demand Response Software Upgrade - Capital cost/unit - $1600 - O&M cost/unit - $420(March 2003)

Transit Software Development - Capital cost/unit - $1600 - O&M cost/unit - $420(March 2003)

900 MHz two-way radio - Capital cost/unit - $1600 - O&M cost/unit - $420(March 2003)

Demand Response Software - Capital cost/unit - $1600 - O&M cost/unit - $420(March 2003)

Transit Center Labor - Capital cost/unit - $54600(7/22/2002)

Transit Center Vehicle Location Interface - Capital cost/unit - $11000 - O&M cost/unit - $5400 - Lifetime - 7 years(7/22/2002)

Transit Center Software for Tracking and Scheduling - Capital cost/unit - $46200 - O&M cost/unit - $6000 - Lifetime - 7 years(7/22/2002)

Transit Center Hardware - Capital cost/unit - $7500 - Lifetime - 7 years(7/22/2002)

Real-time automated passenger counter data enables responsiveness to periods of high and low demand for light rail.(January 2015)

Conversion of HOV to HOT lanes decreases express bus travel time from 25 to 8 minutes, increases bus speeds from 18 to 55 mph, and increases reliability and ridership.(January 2011)

Joint deployment of scheduling software and Automatic Vehicle Location/Mobile Data Terminals (AVL/MDT) increased ridership and quality of service for two rural transit providers.(December 2010)

In rural Pennsylvania, demand-response service vehicles experienced a nine percent increase in overall on-time performance and over five percent decrease in non-revenue miles traveled.(08/31/2009)

In rural Pennsylvania, demand-response service vehicles experienced a nine percent increase in overall on-time performance and over five percent decrease in non-revenue miles traveled.(08/31/2009)

An evaluation of scheduling software for the paratransit service in Billings, Montana found that the break-even point for savings as a result of the software implementation was a three percent improvement in efficiency.(May 2, 2007)

Experience with the Omnilink system in Prince William County, Virginia suggests that with less than 20 passengers per hour, adding 10 minutes of slack time allows accommodation of one or two deviations per hour for routes taking approximately 35 minutes to drive without deviations.(January 2007)

Implementation of a two-way radio network with paratransit scheduling software provides better customer service, better scheduling, and more efficient staffing.(March 2003)

New Mexico's scheduling/billing sofware leads to better customer service, more efficient reporting and billing, and better coordination between transportation providers and funding agencies.(March 2003)

Implementation of paratransit software with Automatic Vehicle Location/Mobile Data Terminal (AVT/MDT) technologies leads to increase in trip productivity; reduction in administrative staff; and greater overall confidence in the transportation system.(March 2003)

Scheduling software enabled St. Johns County in northeast Florida to reduce office staff from 9 to 4.5 full-time equivalents, while doubling the number of daily trips on the paratransit service, saving $58,000 per year.(February 2003)

Integrated transit ITS technologies for a flexible-route transit service reduced the amount of time required to arrange passenger pick-up or drop-off off the fixed route from two days to two hours.(1/5/2002)

At an intersection in Eindhoven, the Netherlands a transit signal priority system reduced bus schedule deviation by 17 seconds. (1-4 May 2000)

In San Jose, California, a paratransit program equipped with AVL/CAD and an automated scheduling and routing system, realized increased ridership, better on-time performance, and a $500,000 reduction in annual operating costs.(March/April 1997)

In San Jose, California, a paratransit driver commented that she was satisfied with a new AVL/CAD scheduling and routing system, and said it was useful for settling disputes concerning on-time performance .(March/April 1997)

In 1996, the project benefits of existing and planned deployments of transit ITS technologies were estimated to yield between $3.8 billion and $7.4 billion (discounted dollars for 1996) within several years.(July 1996)

Transit AVL can improve O&M and reduce operating expenses.(November 1995)

In Europe, a centralized and coordinated paratransit system resulted in a 2 to 3 percent annual decrease in the cost to provide paratransit services.(1994-1998)

Operating headway-based transit service during high frequency service hours can reduce bus bunching.(January 2011)

For a comprehensive transit ITS deployment program, select an agency project manager with skills in planning, information technology, and communications.(May 2010)

Secure high level management support and broad participation throughout an organization during the implementation and operation of transit automatic vehicle location systems.(2008)

Understand user and usability issues surrounding the development and deployment of kiosks and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems.(4/14/2006)

Consider the pros and cons of performance bonds as they may not be appropriate for all types of procurements.(January 2006)

Exercise careful planning in preparation for issuing an RFP to help mitigate cost, schedule, and performance risks.(January 2006)

Consider issuing separate awards for specific project components when procuring divergent technologies, equipment, or services.(January 2006)

Assure accurate late train arrival forecasts in support of a Connection Protection system.(5/12/2004)

Incorporate real-time bus and train location information in the Connection Protection algorithm.(5/12/2004)

Adjust bus schedules to assure adequate time to accomplish rail-to-bus connections, given the risk of late train arrivals at connecting stations.(5/12/2004)

Consider various technical applications and processes, such as using GIS, evaluating systems compatibility and the facility for upgrades, when deploying ITS.(March 2003)

When deploying ITS for transit service, perform a technology assessment during the planning phase, gather technology operator input, and designate a project manager with adequate decision-making authority.(1/5/2002)

Improve demand response transit using ITS technology, including CAD/AVL, with Mobile Data Terminals (MDT), electronic ID cards, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).(1/1/1998)