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Emergency Management


ITS applications in emergency management include hazardous materials management, the deployment of emergency medical services, and large and small-scale emergency response and evacuation operations.


The capital cost to design, develop, test, and integrate ACN dispatch center equipment and software was estimated at $152,400.(February 2001)

The annualized life-cycle costs for full ITS deployment and operations in Tucson were estimated at $72.1 million. (May 2005)

A modeling study evaluated the potential deployment of full ITS capabilities in Cincinnati. The annualized life-cycle cost was estimated at $98.2 million.(May 2005)

The annualized life-cycle costs for full ITS deployment and operations in Seattle were estimated at $132.1 million.(May 2005)

Over half of the $3.25 million cost for the San Antonio Lifelink advanced telemedicine project was attributed to reseach and development.(May 2000)

Commercially available, off-the-shelf technology that enhances the safety and security of hazmat transportation operations ranges in cost from $250 to $3,500 per vehicle.(31 August 2004)

Commercially available, off-the-shelf technology that enhances the safety and security of hazmat transportation operations ranges in cost from $250 to $3,500 per vehicle.(31 August 2004)

Louisiana deployed seven flood detection and traffic evacuation monitoring stations for approximately $200,000.(11/1/2003)

The Pennsylvania (PA) Turnpike Commission expanded its statewide advanced traveler information system (ATIS) to better inform motorists of traffic, weather, and emergency conditions along the PA Turnpike. The overall project cost was $8.2 million.(April 2006)

In lieu of installing traditional emergency vehicle pre-emption (EVP) systems at every major intersection in San Jose, the city opted to integrate GPS fleet tracking with an existing network of advanced traffic signal controllers to save $8 million in hardware installation and maintenance costs.(4-7 June 2018)

The City of San Jose implemented a city-wide emergency vehicle preemption (EVP) system by upgrading and integrating fleet tracking systems with a network of traffic signal controllers for less than $750,000.(4-7 June 2018)

The annualized life-cycle costs for full ITS deployment and operations in Tucson were estimated at $72.1 million. (May 2005)

A modeling study evaluated the potential deployment of full ITS capabilities in Cincinnati. The annualized life-cycle cost was estimated at $98.2 million.(May 2005)

The annualized life-cycle costs for full ITS deployment and operations in Seattle were estimated at $132.1 million.(May 2005)

TMC central hardware costs can exceed $200,000 if regional communications and system integration are required.(5 August 2004)

Emergency preemption equipment was deployed at several intersections in British Columbia, Canada at a cost of $4,000 (Canadian) per intersection.(November 2001)

A GPS-based satellite system costing roughly $4,000 per intersection and $2,000 per vehicle, allows Palm Beach County, Florida fire personnel to responder faster.(1 June 1997)

TMC central hardware costs can exceed $200,000 if regional communications and system integration are required.(5 August 2004)

Costs for creating a statewide electronic crash data collection system range from $1.1 to 2.3 million.(2010)

I-70 Corridor ITS Study identifies system costs for several technology applications.(June 2010)

The cost of O&M at the Arizona TMC was estimated at $2 million per year.(January 2006)

In Michigan, the Flint Mass Transportation Authority budgeted $1 million to develop a central system for county-wide AVL.(June 2005)

The annualized life-cycle costs for full ITS deployment and operations in Tucson were estimated at $72.1 million. (May 2005)

A modeling study evaluated the potential deployment of full ITS capabilities in Cincinnati. The annualized life-cycle cost was estimated at $98.2 million.(May 2005)

The annualized life-cycle costs for full ITS deployment and operations in Seattle were estimated at $132.1 million.(May 2005)

The cost to design and deploy a shared regional transportation, emergency, and communications center in Austin and Travis Counties (Texas) was estimated at $5 million.(May 2004)

The total capital cost of the Seattle MMDI emergency operations centers project including equipment and planning/development costs were $151,700; O&M costs were approximately 5% of the equipment costs.(30 May 2000)

A GPS-based satellite system costing roughly $4,000 per intersection and $2,000 per vehicle, allows Palm Beach County, Florida fire personnel to responder faster.(1 June 1997)

800 MHz Two-way Radios - Capital cost/unit - $1700(30 May 2000)

Repeater Station Upgrade - Capital cost/unit - $1700(30 May 2000)

Hardware Upgrade for HAZMAT Management - Capital cost/unit - $3000 - O&M cost/unit - $60(July 2005)

Hardware Upgrade for HAZMAT Management - Capital cost/unit - $4000 - O&M cost/unit - $80(July 2005)

Signal controller assembly - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Signal controller assembly - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Signal controller assembly - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Signal preemption system - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Signal controller assembly - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Vehicle detection - infrared - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Vehicle detection - optical - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Signal controller assembly - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Signal preemption system - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Signal controller assembly - Capital cost/unit - $5360.96(2/4/2013)

Roadside Signal Preemption/Priority - Capital cost/unit - $5000 - O&M cost/unit - $200 - Lifetime - 10 years(06/22/2006)

Signal Controller - Capital cost/unit - $15100 - O&M cost/unit - $400 - Lifetime - 10 years(06/22/2006)

Signal Controller Upgrade for Signal Preemption - Capital cost/unit - $4100 - O&M cost/unit - $400 - Lifetime - 10 years(06/22/2006)

Inductive Loop Surveillance at Intersection - Capital cost/unit - $9000 - O&M cost/unit - $500 - Lifetime - 3 years(6/26/28/2005)

Telephone Drop - Capital cost/unit - $2900 - O&M cost/unit - $600 - Lifetime - 10 years(6/26/28/2005)

Roadside Signal Preemption/Priority - Capital cost/unit - $5600 - O&M cost/unit - $1100 - Lifetime - 10 years(6/26/28/2005)

Signal Preemption/Priority Emitter - Capital cost/unit - $1300 - O&M cost/unit - $100 - Lifetime - 10 years(6/26/28/2005)

Roadside Signal Preemption / Priority - Capital cost/unit - $5700 - Lifetime - 7 years(5 August 2004)

Roadside Signal Preemption / Priority - Capital cost/unit - $8000 - O&M cost/unit - $236.8 - Lifetime - 7 years(5 August 2004)

Signal Preemption/Priority Emitter - Capital cost/unit - $1250 - Lifetime - 10 years(8/19/2003)

Roadside Signal Preemption/Priority - Capital cost/unit - $4995 - O&M cost/unit - $1000 - Lifetime - 10 years(8/19/2003)

Emergency Response Hardware - Capital cost/unit - $9000 - O&M cost/unit - $180(July 2005)

Hardware Upgrade for Emergency Route Planning - Capital cost/unit - $6000 - O&M cost/unit - $120(July 2005)

Emergency Response Hardware - Capital cost/unit - $12000 - O&M cost/unit - $240(July 2005)

Hardware Upgrade for Emergency Route Planning - Capital cost/unit - $10000 - O&M cost/unit - $200(July 2005)

Deployment and Installation - Capital cost/unit - $12000(January 2005)

Software Development - Capital cost/unit - $71000(January 2005)

User Documentation - Capital cost/unit - $10000(January 2005)

Acceptance Testing and Final Acceptance - Capital cost/unit - $25000(January 2005)

Training - Capital cost/unit - $11000(January 2005)

Rapid Prototype - Capital cost/unit - $15000(January 2005)

VDOT Administrative/Engineering Costs - Capital cost/unit - $37000(January 2005)

Acceptance Test Documentation - Capital cost/unit - $9000(January 2005)

Design Phase- System and Software Architecture Description - System Requirements Specification - Interface and Database Design Definition- Hardware and Network Architecture - System Test Plan - Capital cost/unit - $50000(January 2005)

As-built Documentation - Capital cost/unit - $8000(January 2005)

VPN Hardware - Capital cost/unit - $1200(January 2005)

800 MHz Two-way Radios - Capital cost/unit - $1700(30 May 2000)

Repeater Station Upgrade - Capital cost/unit - $1700(30 May 2000)

In Erie County, New York, a field operational test found that automated collision notification systems reduced incident notification time from an average of 3 minutes to less than 1 minute.(February 2001)

In San Antonio, Texas, 60 percent of drivers of transit vehicles equipped with in-vehicle navigation devices reported that they saved time and felt safer.(May 2000)

HAZMAT safety and security technologies can have tremendous societal cost savings well beyond the break even point for benefits and costs.(11 November 2004)

HAZMAT safety and security technologies can reduce the potential for terrorist consequences by approximately 36 percent.(11 November 2004)

HAZMAT safety and security technologies can have tremendous societal cost savings well beyond the break even point for benefits and costs.(11 November 2004)

HAZMAT safety and security technologies can reduce the potential for terrorist consequences by approximately 36 percent.(11 November 2004)

A series of interviews with commercial vehicle operators across the U.S. indicated that truck and motorcoach drivers are in strong agreement in favor of some ITS applications, but have mixed opinions about other applications. (1997)

ITS CVO applications for hazardous materials incident response were projected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio ranging from 0.3:1 to 2.5:1.(1996)

Route guidance provided by the EVAC mobility application showed that an evacuation information system may decrease congestion time by 20 percent.(May 8, 2015)

In lieu of installing traditional emergency vehicle pre-emption (EVP) systems at every major intersection in San Jose, the city opted to integrate GPS fleet tracking with an existing network of advanced traffic signal controllers to save $8 million in hardware installation and maintenance costs.(4-7 June 2018)

Vehicle-to-infrastructure emergency vehicle signal preemption application found to reduce emergency vehicle response time by 43 to 51 percent depending on traffic density.(January 2016)

A radio-based, GPS emergency vehicle preemption system reduced the average response times by five to seven minutes on a busy corridor.(2010)

Most communities rate benefits of emergency vehicle traffic signal pre-emption from “moderate” to “very high”.(September 2010)

Modeling indicated that emergency vehicle signal preemption at three intersections on a Virginia arterial route increased average travel time by 2.4 percent when priority was requested.(July 1999)

An emergency vehicle signal preemption system in Houston, Texas reduced emergency vehicle travel time by 16 to 23 percent.(April 1991)

In Denver, Colorado emergency vehicle signal preemption reduced response time by 14 to 23 percent.(5 October 1978)

A simulation analysis shows that a 30 percent connected vehicle (CV) penetration rate can reduce total delay up to 60 percent during a no-notice evacuation event.(January 2017)

In Washington D.C., allowing transit vehicles priority during a no-notice evacuation resulted in a 26 percent time saving for transit buses without impacting on personal vehicle travel time.(May 2011)

In Hampton Roads, Virginia, a hurricane evacuation plan indicated that lane reversal is warranted for any hurricane predicted to make landfall as a Category 4 or 5 storm, and is strongly recommended for any Category 3 storm.(21-25 January 2007)

Freeway lane reversal improved traffic volumes by 44 percent following South Carolina hurricane(2005)

EU-mandated automated emergency call technology, eCall, is expected to reduce response time to road accidents by up to 50 percent and help save up to 1,500 lives per year.(03/27/2018)

Incident scene guidance and alerts through CV-applications can potentially reduce network delay up to 14 percent.

Survey responses from key professionals in five states indicate the following ITS technologies have the highest potential to benefit emergency transportation operations: interoperable radio communications, dynamic message signs, GPS and geographical information systems, closed circuit television roadway surveillance, and Enhanced 911.(22-26 January 2006)

The delay reduction benefits of improved incident management in the Greater Houston area saved motorists approximately $8,440,000 annually. (7 February 1997)

In Albuquerque, New Mexico, an ambulance provider increased its efficiency by 10 to 15 percent using AVL/CAD to improve route guidance.(January 1997)

During system testing, CV Pilot sites discover the importance of having expertise in detecting and mitigating interferences with radio frequency and GPS signals(12/13/2018)

Refine institutional arrangements when deploying connected vehicle technology to outline the expectations of partners in terms of service, outcomes and reporting.(12/13/2018)

Refine proper antenna placement on connected vehicles (particularly commercial vehicles) to reduce DSRC ‘shadow’ areas where DSRC signal is degraded.(12/13/2018)

Connected vehicle deployers are encouraged to utilize multi-vendor outsourcing and to source suppliers early to create a collaborative environment that enables as much parallel work as possible.(12/13/2018)

Connected vehicle deployers should assess field equipment and organizational capabilities that will be needed to support core CV components.(12/13/2018)

Perform adequate analyses and tests to design, calibrate and validate the capabilities of a bridge security monitoring system in order to reduce false alarms.(01/30/2009)

Perform adequate analyses and tests to design, calibrate and validate the capabilities of a bridge security monitoring system in order to reduce false alarms.(01/30/2009)

During system testing, CV Pilot sites discover the importance of having expertise in detecting and mitigating interferences with radio frequency and GPS signals(12/13/2018)

Refine institutional arrangements when deploying connected vehicle technology to outline the expectations of partners in terms of service, outcomes and reporting.(12/13/2018)

Refine proper antenna placement on connected vehicles (particularly commercial vehicles) to reduce DSRC ‘shadow’ areas where DSRC signal is degraded.(12/13/2018)

Connected vehicle deployers are encouraged to utilize multi-vendor outsourcing and to source suppliers early to create a collaborative environment that enables as much parallel work as possible.(12/13/2018)

Connected vehicle deployers should assess field equipment and organizational capabilities that will be needed to support core CV components.(12/13/2018)

Develop an effective evacuation plan for special event that gathers a large audience and consider co-locating the responding agencies in a joint command center.(01/30/2009)

Be aware of the challenges of disseminating travel information during disasters in rural areas.(28 March 2006)

Closely coordinate the content and delivery of travel information messages to the public during disasters.(28 March 2006)

Adequately plan for the ATIS operational needs for communicating with the public during disasters.(28 March 2006)

Adopt best practices for integrating emergency information into Transportation Management Center (TMC) operations to improve performance and increase public mobility, safety and security.(2/28/2006)

Invest in research and development for emergency integration.(2/28/2006)

Extend the application of emergency integration best practices to further improve emergency operations.(2/28/2006)

Integrate weather information into Transportation Management Center (TMC) operations to enhance the ability of operators to manage traffic in a more responsive and effective way during weather events.(2/28/2006)

Consult with traffic engineers early in the process of no-notice evacuations to secure the use of traffic management resources and to identify routes for evacuation and re-entry.(February 2006)

Involve both public and private sectors in disseminating emergency management and disaster recovery information (4/1/2004)

Anticipate and plan for delays in deployment related to weather and the physical environment.(12/1/2003)

Identify innovative solutions for deploying Information Stations that report real-time data for weather and traffic monitoring in the event of a hurricane.(11/1/2003)

Develop partnerships for a cost-effective approach to deploy remote traffic count stations that will provide real-time traffic data during a hurricane evacuation.(11/1/2003)

Effectively communicate plans for implementing contraflow lanes during a hurricane evacuation.(11/1/2003)

Provide a single message to the public to assure consistency and to correct inaccurate crisis information.(March 2002)

Identify a single agency to be responsible for maintenance of an emergency vehicle preemption system.(January 2006)

Conduct rigorous testing prior to deployment of an emergency preemption system to avoid potential problems and negative system impacts.(January 2006)

During system testing, CV Pilot sites discover the importance of having expertise in detecting and mitigating interferences with radio frequency and GPS signals(12/13/2018)

Refine institutional arrangements when deploying connected vehicle technology to outline the expectations of partners in terms of service, outcomes and reporting.(12/13/2018)

Refine proper antenna placement on connected vehicles (particularly commercial vehicles) to reduce DSRC ‘shadow’ areas where DSRC signal is degraded.(12/13/2018)

Connected vehicle deployers are encouraged to utilize multi-vendor outsourcing and to source suppliers early to create a collaborative environment that enables as much parallel work as possible.(12/13/2018)

Connected vehicle deployers should assess field equipment and organizational capabilities that will be needed to support core CV components.(12/13/2018)

Utilize transportation tools in communications, traffic control, and monitoring and prediction to maximize the ability of the highway network to support evacuation operations.(December 2006)

Include public and private sector transportation organizations as stakeholders in emergency evacuation operations and involve them in the preparedness and response planning.(December 2006)

Utilize ITS technologies to improve highway efficiency in emergency evacuations with advance notice.(December 2006)

Use a common Concept of Operations for evacuation operations that clarifies stakeholder roles and defines coordination activities for all operational phases of the evacuation.(December 2006)

Adopt best practices for integrating emergency information into Transportation Management Center (TMC) operations to improve performance and increase public mobility, safety and security.(2/28/2006)

Invest in research and development for emergency integration.(2/28/2006)

Extend the application of emergency integration best practices to further improve emergency operations.(2/28/2006)

Integrate weather information into Transportation Management Center (TMC) operations to enhance the ability of operators to manage traffic in a more responsive and effective way during weather events.(2/28/2006)

Plan for the transport of special need populations, such as nursing home residents, during no-notice evacuations by advance identification of wheelchair accessible buses and shelters.(February 2006)

Plan for the transport of special need populations, such as prisoners, during no-notice evacuations by advance identification of the line of authority as well as the potential evacuation routes.(February 2006)

Consult with traffic engineers early in the process of no-notice evacuations to secure the use of traffic management resources and to identify routes for evacuation and re-entry.(February 2006)

Identify innovative solutions for deploying Information Stations that report real-time data for weather and traffic monitoring in the event of a hurricane.(11/1/2003)

Develop partnerships for a cost-effective approach to deploy remote traffic count stations that will provide real-time traffic data during a hurricane evacuation.(11/1/2003)

Effectively communicate plans for implementing contraflow lanes during a hurricane evacuation.(11/1/2003)

Future ICM systems will require new technical skill sets. Involve management across multiple levels to help agencies understand each other’s needs, capabilities, and priorities.(06/30/2015)

Develop an effective evacuation plan for special event that gathers a large audience and consider co-locating the responding agencies in a joint command center.(01/30/2009)

When considering the use of camera phones in managing incidents, be aware of the challenges associated with technology interoperability among agencies and first responder priorities.(April 2007)

Prepare in advance for severe weather by staffing enough snow plow operators and ensuring that public information systems will be updated with current weather and road conditions.(March 27, 2007 )

Utilize transportation tools in communications, traffic control, and monitoring and prediction to maximize the ability of the highway network to support evacuation operations.(December 2006)

Include public and private sector transportation organizations as stakeholders in emergency evacuation operations and involve them in the preparedness and response planning.(December 2006)

Utilize ITS technologies to improve highway efficiency in emergency evacuations with advance notice.(December 2006)

Use a common Concept of Operations for evacuation operations that clarifies stakeholder roles and defines coordination activities for all operational phases of the evacuation.(December 2006)

Adopt best practices for integrating emergency information into Transportation Management Center (TMC) operations to improve performance and increase public mobility, safety and security.(2/28/2006)

Invest in research and development for emergency integration.(2/28/2006)

Extend the application of emergency integration best practices to further improve emergency operations.(2/28/2006)

Integrate weather information into Transportation Management Center (TMC) operations to enhance the ability of operators to manage traffic in a more responsive and effective way during weather events.(2/28/2006)

Identify a single agency to be responsible for maintenance of an emergency vehicle preemption system.(January 2006)

Conduct rigorous testing prior to deployment of an emergency preemption system to avoid potential problems and negative system impacts.(January 2006)

Employ the use of critical ITS technologies in the emergency management of transportation operations during biohazard incidents.(2005)

Employ the use of critical ITS technologies in the emergency management of transportation operations during biohazard incidents.(2005)

Use the U.S. Department of Transportation's Biohazard Operational Concept as a blueprint to guide the development of a biohazard event management plan.(2005)

Manage response to a biohazard emergency using Emergency Activation Levels, an Incident Management System, and Emergency Operations Centers.(2005)

In preparation for managing transportation in catastrophic emergencies, identify agencies and their decision makers to interact with, and establish effective coordination with them to execute response.(May 2004)

Ensure redundancy of critical components in transportation support systems to be used in case of an emergency.(May 2004)

Ensure redundancy of critical components in transportation support systems to be used in case of an emergency.(May 2004)

Ensure reliable and interoperable communication between transportation and public safety agencies and use ITS to promptly disseminate travel updates to the public during emergencies.(May 2004)

Sustain ITS network operations and interagency communications during emergencies by ensuring provisions for alternate power supply and telecommunications services.(May 2004)

Develop and rehearse an emergency response plan for managing catastrophes with minimum panic, disruption and loss.(May 2004)

Involve both public and private sectors in disseminating emergency management and disaster recovery information (4/1/2004)

Anticipate and plan for delays in deployment related to weather and the physical environment.(12/1/2003)

Identify innovative solutions for deploying Information Stations that report real-time data for weather and traffic monitoring in the event of a hurricane.(11/1/2003)

Develop partnerships for a cost-effective approach to deploy remote traffic count stations that will provide real-time traffic data during a hurricane evacuation.(11/1/2003)

Effectively communicate plans for implementing contraflow lanes during a hurricane evacuation.(11/1/2003)

Identify all transportation, incident management, and emergency response entities and strive to resolve issues with semantics and terminology among different agencies.(March 2002)

Provide a single message to the public to assure consistency and to correct inaccurate crisis information.(March 2002)

Plan for system redundancies to ensure appropriate incident response activities and continuity of operations during emergency situations.(March 2002)

Utilize well-equipped safety service patrols to assist highway motorists after vehicle malfunctions or crashes, and to coordinate a safe and efficient response.(1/1/1999)

Build a strong partnership between transportation and public safety agencies, and establish clear operational rules from the start.(July 2006)

Employ the use of critical ITS technologies in the emergency management of transportation operations during biohazard incidents.(2005)

Use non-proprietary software for ITS projects to ensure compatibility with other ITS components(2001)