The conversion of HOV to HOT lanes in Los Angeles increased vehicle throughput on I-10 and I-110, however, fuel consumption increased at an estimated cost of $104,566,154 with increased VMT.

The Los Angeles Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) projects evaluated tolling, technology, transit, and travel demand management strategies.

Los Angeles; California; United States

Summary Information

The Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metro area is home to 13 million people and has the second highest population density in the United States. The region has the most extensive freeway system in the United States, in addition to a comprehensive public transit system. The area is one of the most congested areas in the United States.

The Los Angeles (LA) Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) projects included:

Tolling: Converting HOV lanes and restriping created dynamically-priced HOT lanes; the 11-mile ExpressLanes on I-110 opened on November 10, 2012 and the 14-mile ExpressLanes on I-10 opened on February 23, 2013. Tolls range from $0.25 to $1.40 per hour, depending on congestion, paid with an electronic FasTrak transponder.

Parking Management: LA Express Park is an integrated parking management system that relies on state-of-the-art parking sensors, parking meters, and parking guidance technologies, as well as advanced analytical capabilities.

Transit: Increased frequency of bus rapid transit (BRT), additional transit signal priority (TSP) deployment, and capital improvements.

Travel Demand Management: Formation of new vanpools.


Fuel consumption calculations multiply vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by the appropriate fuel economy for the appropriate speed. The emission factors by speed were prepared using the EMFAC2011 model for 2012 for all speeds, vehicle ages, and types, and then weighting the resulting emission and fuel consumption factors by the proportion of VMT represented by each vehicle type. The cost of fuel (including taxes) for 2013 was obtained from the U.S. Energy Information Administration for all grades of gasoline for an entire year for LA. Estimated cost of fuel for future years was obtained from Final Regulatory Impact Analysis: Corporate Average Fuel Economy for MY 2011 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks



The ExpressLanes resulted in greater vehicle throughput and VMT on I-10 and I-110. Fuel consumption findings directly relate to VMT changes; VMT increased substantially, fuel consumption increased along with this change. Net VMT increased by 30.5 percent on I-10 and 6.6 percent on I-110.

Average fuel economy on I-10 decreased from 18.4 to 17.6 mpg (4.5 percent) and from 17.9 to 17.5 mpg (2.1 percent) on I-110. On I-110 combined morning and afternoon peak fuel consumption increased by 8.8 percent and on I-10 by 36.7 percent. The increased fuel consumption is estimated to cost $104,566,154.

Successful deployment of electronic tolling on I-10 and I-110 has led to additional plans for tolling on other critical corridors in the region. Public reaction to the CRD projects has been generally positive

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Los Angeles Congestion Reduction Demonstration ExpressLanes Program: National Evaluation Report

Author: Schroeder, Jeremy, et al.

Published By: U.S. DOT Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration

Source Date: 08/31/2015

Other Reference Number: FHWA-JPO-14-126



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high occupancy vehicles, carpool lanes, high occupancy vehicle lane, managed lanes, HOV, congestion pricing, value pricing, variable road pricing, HOT lanes, fuel consumption, Los Angeles, I-10, I-110, congestion reduction demonstration projects

Benefit ID: 2017-01161